Further literature

Caffeine and hair growth

  • “Caffeine's mechanisms of action and its cosmetic use”.

    Herman, A.; Herman, A. P.; Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 2013, 26, 8-14.
    Review article on caffeine which given its high bioactivity and main penetration properties is used in a variety of applications for skin and hair care.
  • “Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy”.

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.; Laser Physics 2010, 20, 551-556.
    This study analysed the penetration and storage of a caffeine-containing shampoo in the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy.

Female hair loss

  • “Physiological changes in scalp, facial and body hair after the menopause: a cross-sectional population-based study of subjective changes”

    Ali, I; Wojnarowska, F.; Br. J. Dermatol. 2011, 164, 508–513.
    Study on the changes in hair growth after the start of the menopause.
  • “Hair loss in elderly women”

    Chen, W.; Yang, C.-C.; Todorova, A.; Al Khuzaei, S.; Chiu, H.-C.; Worret, W.-I.; Ring, J.; Eur. J. Dermatol. 2010, 20, 145-151.
    After the start of the menopause, women show signs of hair ageing and hair loss, these are often due to a range of reasons and thus need to be examined in great detail.
  • “Systematic approach to hair loss in women”

    Trüeb, R. M.; J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges. 2010, 8. 284-298.
  • “Hair loss in women”

    Tosti, A.; Piraccini, B. M.; Sisti, A.; Duque-Estrada, B.; Minerva Ginecol. 2009, 61, 445-452.
    Review article on the most common causes of female hair loss. The influences of hormonal changes and significant emotional stress on hair growth and hair loss are described.
  • “Female pattern hair loss may be triggered by low estrogen to androgen ratio”

    Riedel-Baima, B.; Riedel, A.; Endocr. Regul. 2008, 42, 13-16.
    With both genders, androgenetic alopecia appears to be caused by the conversion of androgens into dihydrotestosterone in the hair follicle. Differences between male and female alopecia would seem to result from the presence of oestrogen which protects women from hair loss. The authors assume that a genetic predisposition determines the oestrogen/androgen ratio (represented by estradiol and testosterone) and thus also the progression of female hair loss.
  • “Chronic telogen effluvium: Increased scalp hair shedding in middle-aged women”

    Whiting, D. A.; J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1996, 35, 899-906.

Hair growth mechanism, cAMP, testosterone, 5α-DHT, 5α-reductase

  • “Coffein – Genussmittel und Arzneistoff”

    Nieber, K.; Felke, S.; Schmalz, A.; Pharm. Ztg. 2007, 4, 16-22.
    Review article on caffeine as a natural stimulant and active ingredient.

Influence on the hair cycle, hair growth/hair loss

  • “The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan”

    Schneider, M. R.; Schmidt-Ullrich, R.; Paus, R.; Curr. Biol. 2009, 19, 132-142.
    Review article on the structure and biology of the hair follicle.